Last modified: 2019-11-30 by ivan sache
Keywords: union of chambers and commodity exchanges of turkey |
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Flag of TOBB - Image by Ivan Sache, 2 October 2017
Chambers of Commerce and Industry were established in the Ottoman Empire at the end of the 19th century in several towns. Suppressed because of the Balkan Wars and the War of Independence, they were legally reactivated after the proclamation of the Republic in 1923.
The Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey (Türkiye Odalar
ve Borsalar Birliği - TOBB; website) is prescribed by Articles 54-72 of Law No. 5,174 "On the Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey and the Chambers and Community Exchanges" (text), adopted on 18 May 2004 and
published on 1 June 2004; this superseded Law No. 5,590, adopted on 8
March 1950 and published on 15 March 1950.
TOBB was established on 7 February 1952, then composed of 32 Chambers of Commerce and Industry, 8 Chambers of Commerce, 1 Chamber of Industry and 20 Commodity Exchanges.
Article 54 reads:
The Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey is a public entity having the nature of superior professional organization that has a legal entity, established in order to provide the unity and the solidarity between chambers and commodity exchanges, to provide the profession to be developed in accordance with the general interests of the profession, to facilitate the professional activities of the members of the chambers and commodity exchanges, to protect the professional disciplinary and moral in order to provide the honesty and confidence in relation with the members of chambers and commodity exchanges and the public, to make necessary studies so as to the development of the country, improvement of the economy and to perform the services envisaged by this Law.
TOBB is headquartered in Ankara in the emblematic TOBB towers, two twin skyscrapers (140 m in height, 34 floors) erected in 1999-2001.
The listing of the affiliated members of TOBB includes:
Ivan Sache, 4 April 2019
The flag of TOBB (photo,
photo; video) is white with the organization's logo in the center.
The elements of the logo each correspond to a group of organizations affiliated with TOBB:
- Yellow: Commodity Exchanges;
- Blue: Chambers of Commerce;
- Red: Chambers of Industry;
- Light blue: Chambers of Shipping.
Beside the union's flag, several organizations affiliated to TOBB use their own flag, most often, white with the organization's emblem.
Ivan Sache, 2 October 2017
Flag of TOBB ETÜ - Image by Ivan Sache, 2 October 2017
TOBB University of Economics and Technology (TOBB Ekonomi ve Teknoloji
Üniversitesi ya da kısaca - TOBB ETÜ) was established on 1 July 2003 in
Ankara by the Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey (TOBB).
TOBB ETÜ is composed of the Faculties of Engineering, Economics and Administrative Sciences, Science and Literature, Fine Arts, Law, Medicine, and Foreign Languages, and of the Institutes of Natural and Applied Sciences, and of Social Sciences.
The flag of TOBB ETÜ (photo,
photo) is white with the university's emblem.
The graphical charter of TOBB ETÜ provides a detailed construction sheet for the logo and its color specifications, as follows:
Blue Pantone 293 C CMYK 100 87 0 0 RGB 27 68 156 HEX #1b449c Orange Pantone 144 C CMYK 2 55 100 0 RGB 241 138 33 HEX #f08921 Red Pantone 2621 C CMYK 21 100 95 12 RGB 178 32 41 HEX #b21f28 Gray Pantone 877 C CMYK 47 38 38 3 RGB 142 144 144 HEX #8e8f90
Ivan Sache, 2 October 2017