Last modified: 2023-09-23 by martin karner
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8:11 | stripes 3+5+16+5+3
image by eljko Heimer
Flag adopted 28th October 1948 (25 Tishrei 5709), published 12th November 1948
Israel became independent on 14th May 1948 according to the United Nations resolution of 29th November
1947. [Previously] the area which is nowadays Israel was part of
the British Mandate on Palestine-Eretz
Israel and therefore [Israel] couldn't have an
[internationally recognized] official flag. The current Israeli
flag is based on the Zionist movement flag
– now about 100 years old – which represented the Jewish
population in the Mandate era but had no
Dov Gutterman, 7 March 2001
The Israeli national flag is used by sport fans as a basis to
fan flags, as is the case with Maccabi
Tel-Aviv Basketball Club and Hapoel
Tel-Aviv Football Club.
Dov Gutterman, 5 December 2001
A "Jerusalem Post" article shows a
colorized image with the vertical Israeli flags at the
Declaration of Independence on 14 May 1948.
located by William Garrison, 23 April 2023
The Magen David (Shield of David), the six-pointed
star made of two triangles, appeared according to Jewish
tradition on the shield of King David. According to the same
tradition the same symbols appeared also on King Solomon's ring
and therefore it is also called the Seal of Solomon.
This symbol was considered to have magical powers and as a
defence from the evil spirits. Such symbol without any connection
to Judaism was found in India.
The symbol was also considered as magical by the Moslems (as
Solomon Seal) and appeared as the symbol of Nigeria.
It was also used by the Ethiopian monarchs
who, according to their tradition, were the descendants of King
Solomon and the Queen of Sheva, and was also known there as
The Magen David was used by Jews for decoration and appeared as an official Jewish symbol for the first time in 1354 when the Jewish community in Prague received the right to have a flag of its own and chose the Magen David as the symbol on the flag. In the 15th Century the Magen David was used as a trademark for Jewish printers in Prague, Amsterdam and Italy, and in 1655 it was used on Vienna Jewish community seal and soon afterwards also by the Jewish community in Amsterdam. In the 19th century the Magen David was used almost by all Jews as their symbol and it was used for synagogue decoration, seals and letters.
When the first Zionist groups (Bilu, Hovevei Zion etc.) started their activities in 1881, they adopted the Magen David for their symbols. The Magen David also appeared at the first edition of Herzl's newspaper Die Welt in 1896.
Even though the Magen David is known as the Jewish symbol, the Jews had another symbol which is the Menorah which is also the emblem of the State of Israel and its origin is already in the Bible. The emblem is based on the engraving of the Menorah of the Temple in Jerusalem as it appears [engraved] on Titus Gate in Rome. The destiny of the original Menorah is unknown.
Sources: Hebrew Encyclopedia; Encyclopaedia Britannica (Hebrew version); From the Foundation, 1986.
Dov Gutterman, 4 March 1999
The Magen David is not an ancient
Jewish symbol nor a religious one like the cross. It originated
in Bohemia around 500 years ago.
Nahum Shereshevsky, 22 April 2000
There is absolutely no archaeological evidence of David's
existence. I am not suggesting that he did not exist, just that
there is as yet nothing extra-biblical. Therefore it would be
impossible to pin the Magen David on him.
T.F. Mills, 22 April 2000
From most accounts, the Magen David was originally chosen (on the flag of the Jewish community of Prague, in the middle ages) for decorative purposes – in other words, as a star, with no other meaning, in an age when heraldic stars had six points (easier to make). Explanations about 'shields' and 'seals' came much later.
Actually, the earliest known use of the six-pointed star by
Jews was in the decoration of Classical (Greek/Roman) Era
synagogues. The six-pointed stars are used alongside five-pointed
stars and, of all things, swastikas. All are clearly meant only
for ornamentation (just perhaps with a shared mystical
background), with no further purpose. The six-pointed star
doesn't arise again in Jewish iconography – again as a secular
symbol – for another thousand years, on a flag. Use in other
areas proliferated after that.
Nathan Lamm, 6 February 2004
For those interested in the history of the Magen David, there
is a book by W. Gunther Plaut, "The Magen David: How the
six-pointed star became an emblem for the Jewish people",
published by B'nai B'rith Books (1991).
Albert Kirsch, 8 February 2004
You can read about the origin of the two "Solomon
Seals" at <www.jewishencyclopedia.com/artid=38>
Dov Gutterman and António Martins-Tuválkin, 13 February 2005
About the history of the Magen David see also Star
of David blog.
Ron Lahav, 30 December 2007
Gershom Scholem, a German-born scholar who taught Jewish
mysticism at the Hebrew University, wrote what's pretty much the
final word on the subject of Magen David as an article in
Commentary Magazine back in 1947. The material was later
reprinted (somewhat edited, I suppose) in the Encyclopaedia
Judaica and in collection(s) of Scholem's work.
In short: It was used as a purely decorative symbol by Jews in the classical era, was used as a mystical symbol (but not as a symbol of Judaism as such) starting in medieval times, and began life as a specifically Jewish symbol when it appeared on the flag of the Jewish community of Prague in the Middle Ages, eventually spreading throughout the Jewish world.
Of course, it was used for similar purposes – mystical and decorative – by many world cultures, and it probably arose in Prague simply as a star, and stars, as used by everyone and in usage that survived for many centuries and even to this day, tended to have six points back then.
Nathan Lamm, 3 January 2008
In 1354, King of Bohemia Charles IV prescribed for the Jews of Prague a red flag with both David's shield and Solomon's seal, while the red flag with which the Jews met King Matthias of Hungary in the 15th century showed two pentagrams with two golden stars. In 1460, the Jews of Ofen (Budapest, Hungary) received King Matthias Corvinus with a red flag on which were two Shields of David and two stars. In the first Hebrew prayer book, printed in Prague in 1512, a large hexagram appears on the cover. In the colophon is written: "Each man beneath his flag according to the house of their fathers ... and he will merit to bestow a bountiful gift on anyone who grasps the Shield of David." In 1592, Mordechai Maizel was allowed to affix "a flag of King David, similar to that located on the Main Synagogue" on his synagogue in Prague. Following the Battle of Prague (1648), the Jews of Prague were again granted a flag, in recognition in their contribution to the city's defense. That flag showed a yellow hexagram on a red background, with a star placed in the center of the hexagram.
Under the national flag (top of this page) we have "Flag
adopted 12th November 1948, coat-of-arms adopted 11th November
1949". However, the (excellent) Ministry of Foreign
about the flag and arms claims that the adoption dates are 28
October 1948 (25 Tishrei 5709) and 10th February 1949 (11 Shevat
5709). Why that difference?
Santiago Dotor, 10 October 2001
This is easy to understand looking at the proclamation. The
proclamation was signed on 28 October 1948 but was published in
the official gazette on 12 November 1948. According to law, the
publishing date is the crucial one, but I guess that in this
subject, they chose the signing date. The 1949 Flag and Emblem
Law also uses 28th October 1948. Concerning the emblem,
it was signed on 10th February 1949 but published also later.
Dov Gutterman, 10 October 2001
The following Israeli government website "Israel State Archives" provides information and
photographs about the 1948 development of the flag of the State of Israel:
William Garrison, 27 February 2023
On Wednesday April 21st 1999, we shall celebrate our 51st
Independence Day. All the streets are already decorated with
flags which are usually the national flags and the municipality flags. Also most of the houses
and cars are also decorated with the national flags. As usual,
most national flags do not keep to the official proportions of
8:11 but are 2:3 instead. Some public buildings are also
decorated with the vertical variant (Magen
David rotated 90 degrees) and those range from 2:3 up to 1:5
or even longer. The day before Independence Day is our national
IDF [Israel Defence Force] Memorial Day,
and all the national flags on public buildings will be lowered to
half mast. According to Jewish tradition the day lasts from
sunset to sunset and therefore at 8 pm on April 19th all Israeli
flags are lowered to half mast as the IDF Memorial Day begins and
24 hours later, the flags are raised back as Independence Day
Dov Gutterman, 15 April 1999
Fifteen years ago, you could hardly see any flag while
traveling in Israel. Not even government buildings hoisted the
national flag on a regular basis. The 1986
amendment of the law which obligated hoisting the flag on
government buildings etc. was the beginning of the change which
brought to the current situation where you see flags all over the
land. Most of them are commercial flags but
also government organizations which
adopted unofficial flags, municipalities
and such. Naturally, there are plenty more around in the
Independence Day period.
Dov Gutterman, 23 May 2000
I have carried out a research on the origin of Israeli flags.
One conclusion is that Israel has only three official flags which
are included in the primary and secondary legislation.
The war ensign is an exception. There
is the possibility to make more flags
official, but this option has not been used up to now.
Dov Gutterman, 8 September 2001
All Israeli flags with inscriptions are displayed with the
hoist to the right (i.e. a sinister hoist ). All of them are printed on one side only and
seen mirrored on the obverse side. Only flags that are printed on
both sides are the Delek Company and Egged, and of course the national,
and military flags.
Dov Gutterman, 18 September 2001
I recently visited Qishon Port, an subsidiary port of the major Haifa Port and managed by it. All the port authorities buildings hoisted the Haifa Port flag alongside the national flag. Flags used on different types of vessels:
Dov Gutterman, 30 June 2002
This "Jerusalem Post" article
describes the sharp increase in demand for Israeli national flags in the wake of the protests against the
governmental law reform.
located by William Garrison, 23 April 2023
Israel's Independence Day which moves around the Gregorian
calendar as it is based on the Jewish calendar, also moves if it
falls on Friday or Saturday to avoid conflict with the Sabbath.
This year, it falls on Monday, but has been moved to Tuesday so
that the preceding day, Memorial Day, does not conflict with
Saturday night. If the Flag Flying Days
section applies year-by-year, it should be changed; in
addition, perhaps the following note should be added: "If
4-5 Iyar falls on Thursday-Friday or Friday-Saturday, the days
observed are moved to Wednesday-Thursday, 2-3 or 3-4 Iyar; if 4-5
Iyar falls on Sunday-Monday, the days observed may be moved to
Monday-Tuesday, 5-6 Iyar."
The only other days 4-5 Iyar can fall on are Tuesday-Wednesday, in which case there's no issue. In addition, all of these days begin with the evening preceding.
Nathan Lamm, 4 April 2004
image by António Martins-Tuválkin, 7 July 2008
Here are two examples of Israel vertical flag. One is the standard vertical flag
used in many municipalities during the 1999 Independence Day. The
other flag decorated Zim HQ in Haifa.
Dov Gutterman, 23 June 1999
The "Süddeutsche Zeitung" (19 June 2008, p. 9) reports about
the Israeli flags that came with the three major Israeli
newspapers as a give-away sponsored by the bank Hapoalim. The
photograph clearly shows a flag with turned Magen David, so that
the point does not point upwards, but sideways.
M. Schmöger, 23 June 2008
This mistake made the flag a vertical variant of the national
flag. What people should do is just to hang it vertically, as
Dov Gutterman, 7 July 2008
The protocol manual for the London 2012 Olympics (Flags and Anthems Manual London 2012) provides recommendations for national flag designs. Each NOC was sent an image of the flag, including the PMS shades, for their approval by LOCOG. Once this was obtained, LOCOG produced a 60 x 90 cm version of the flag for further approval. So, while these specs may not be the official, government, version of each flag, they are certainly what the NOC believed the flag to be.
For Israel: PMS 300 blue. The vertical flag is simply the horizontal version turned
90 degrees clockwise.
Ian Sumner, 11 October 2012
There is a custom used for the Israeli national flag's
flagpole of painting the flagpole blue for about one third of the
way up from the ground, and then white for the remaining two
thirds or so. This can be seen repeated for Jerusalem flag's flagpole. I am not at
all sure that it should be, though. Whichever the case, it has
been done from time to time.
M. Breier, 24 June 1999
image by eljko Heimer
Coat-of-arms adopted 10th February 1949 (11 Shevat 5709), published 11th November 1949
From the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs Flag and Emblem webpage:
The official emblem was adopted nine months after the State was established; it has since appeared on official documents, on the presidential standard and on public buildings in Israel and abroad. In the process of designing the emblem, many proposals which sought to include the symbols deemed appropriate for representing the Jewish people in their reborn state were reviewed. To avoid imitating the emblems of European countries and to create a unique one, ancient visual symbols from former periods of Jewish sovereignty were sought. (...) The design process was long, as two almost antithetical forces tried to dictate the character of the emblem – religious and ritual values, on the one hand – secular and sovereign norms, on the other. (...) The Provisional Council of State announced a competition to design the emblem of the State.
The proposal submitted by graphic artists Oteh Walisch and W. Struski was chosen out of 450 designs submitted by 164 participants. The seven-branched candelabrum of the Temple – the menorah – occupies the center of the Walisch and Struski seal. The candelabrum is undoubtedly the oldest Jewish symbol. It has no parallel in heraldry and produces an immediate association with the subject it represents – the Temple in Jerusalem. The artists took as their model the depiction of the menorah in relief on the Arch of Titus in Rome. They simplified the shape into a sort of schematic negative in white, displayed against a light-blue background. The upper portion of the emblem showed a white band, on which the seven golden stars are emblazoned, which Theodor Herzl had intended for the flag of the Jewish state. He had meant these stars to stand for the seven-hour work-day he envisioned for the future citizens of the Jewish state. (...) But the proposal was not accepted. A special "Emblem and Flag Committee" was set up to deal with new proposals; it was headed by Beba Idelson and its members included cabinet ministers and members of the Knesset. The committee decided that the seven-branched menorah should be one of the elements of the emblem (...).
The emblem of the new state, adopted by unanimous vote of the Provisional Council of State, includes several ideas from the earlier designs (but omits one of them): the olive branches express the state's peaceful intentions; the menorah attests to the link of the Jewish people with its glorious past in the homeland and the return of the state to its former luster (through the metaphor of the restoration of the menorah from the Arch of Titus to its place in Israel), and indirectly, the beginning of the end of the Diaspora. "Israel" is the new name of the State, but the inscription is also a remnant of the phrase "Peace over Israel," which had been part of an earlier proposal. The element that was dropped was Herzl's seven stars.
Santiago Dotor, 10 October 2002