- A spar rigged at an upward angle from the upper part of a mast or pole, and
equipped with a halyard at its highest point from which an ensign is flown when
at the peak. A gaff may be fitted to the mizzenmast (or other masts dependent upon the rig) of a sailing ship, or from
the mast of a warship (when it will sometimes carry a command flag), or from a
mast (or stayed mast) ashore (see also ‘fore’,
‘shift colours’ and
a) If a gaff is fitted to a flag pole or mast for civilian
or naval use ashore, it is generally (but not exclusively) that flag which is used as a
naval/civil ensign (or a yacht ensign if appropriate) which is flown from its peak (see also
‘civil ensign’ and
‘yacht ensign’ under
b) (While underway) sailing ships - whether civilian or naval -
still have the option of flying their ensigns for the peak of the gaff if fitted, or from two-thirds the way up
the leech of the mainsail if Bermuda rigged (see also ‘leech’).
- A medieval term, now obsolete, for the carriage upon which a standard was fixed
– a carrocerum (see also ‘standard 6)’
Please note that in the early-middle ages, standards were
sometimes (for reasons which are now unclear) transported into battle and displayed
whilst mounted on some form of wheeled conveyance.
- 1) A Portuguese generic term that covers a number of small flags or pennants (in several, varying types),
often given away or sold as souvenirs.
2) The term was also used by 19th century French sources to describe Brazilian merchant ship pendants - see ‘merchant ship pendant’.
Galhardete/Merchant Ship Pendant of Pernambuco, Brazil (fotw)
- A three or four-masted sailing vessel of the mid-16th to the early 18th Century (see also ‘caravel’ and ‘carrack’).
Flag of Sydney, Australia (fotw);
Arms of Viana do Castelo, Portugal (fotw);
Flag of Dubrovačko, Croatia (fotw)
- A bar running at right angles from the staff from which the flag is partially suspended (see also ‘framed flag’ and ‘outrigger flag’).
Flag of Rakytne, Ukraine (fotw); Flag of
Chevel', Ukraine (fotw);
Flag of Pen'kiv, Ukraine (fotw);
Flag of Holovyn, Ukraine (fotw)
- 1) Generically a ship whose motive power was principally provided by her oars (see also ‘galley ensign’).
2) Specifically the heraldic term for an oared warship with more than one mast - but see
Flag and Arms of Ílhavo, Portugal (fotw);
Flag and Arms of Kragerø, Norway (fotw)
- GALLEY ENSIGN
- In largely Mediterranean usage, a distinctive ensign or flag now
obsolete, that was specifically flown from a warship whose principal motive
power came from her oars rather than her sails (see also
Flag of a Galley Captain, Sardinia 18th Century; Ensign of The Commander of
Galleys, Pre-Ottoman Tunis;
Ensign of France 18th Century (fotw)
- An alternative heraldic term to caltrap - see ‘caltrap’.
- GARBE (or GARB)
- The heraldic term for a sheaf of wheat, corn or other cereal – but see note below.
Flag and Arms of Freienwil, Switzerland (fotw
& Wikipedia); Flag and Arms of
Sopje, Croatia (fotw); Flag of the
Sheaf Steam Shipping Co., UK (fotw)
Please note that if a sheaf is made up of any grain other than wheat this must be stated - e.g., a barley garbe.
- See ‘handguard’.
A Gardiamo/Handguard According to Spanish Regulations (Reglamento de Banderas Actualizado)
- An alternative heraldic term to guardant - see ‘guardant’.
Arms and Flag of Ivittuut, Greenland (fotw)
- 1) In heraldry, a term for a closed or almost closed ring consisting
of intertwined leaves, or of leaves and flowers – a chaplet or orle
- 2) On flags as above, but the term is also used to describe an open topped
wreath composed of leaves, or of leaves and/or flowers, etc., that does not exceed
two-thirds the depth of the object surrounded (for example that on the flag of
Parana, Brazil) – or sometimes considerably less – but see
‘crossed branches 1)’ and
Royal Standard 1961 – 1971, Sierra Leone (fotw);
High Commissioner’s Badge, Palestine 1948 (fotw);
Flag of Parana, Brazil (fotw)
Please note with regard to 1), that the English heraldic
requirement of only four flowers per garland is not generally observed in flags.
A Garland in Heraldry According to English Heraldic Practice (Parker)
- The heraldic term used when a charge (such as a horn, helmet or mitre, etc.) is decorated or ornamented
with details in another tincture – but see ‘adorned 2)’ (also ‘charge 1)’,
Arms of Santa Combinha, Portugal (fotw); Flag and Arms of Martijanec, Croatia (fotw);
Flag of Horn, Netherlands (fotw);
Arms of Helmstadt-Bargen, Germany (Wikipedia)
- GARRISON FLAG
- In US usage, the largest of the three standard sizes of national flag flown
at army and marine corps posts - 20 x 38 feet or 6.1 x 10.9m (see also
‘post flag 1)’,
‘storm flag’ and
Please note that the use of standard sizes of flag
at army posts is by no means limited to the US (although the names may differ),
and that the largest size is the one displayed on days of national celebration
and/or service significance, or as otherwise regulated (see also
‘holiday colours’ and
- GARVEY COLORS/COLOURS
- The colours introduced by Marcus Garvey in 1917 and designed to represent African-American heritage;
they were internationally adopted in 1920 and are now used on several national flags – the black liberation or Afro-American flag or colours - but see
Marcus Garvey’s Flag 1917 (fotw); National Flag of
Zambia (fotw); National Flag of
Malawi (fotw); National Flag of Kenya
Please note that some sources include these with the pan-African colours as referenced above.
- GAY PRIDE FLAG
- See 'rainbow flag 1)'.
A US Gay Pride Flag (fotw)
- GEAR WHEEL
- See 'cog-wheel'.
Flag of The Labour Party, Turkey (fotw)
- An alternative heraldic term to bar - see 'bar 1)'.
Example (Parker); Flag of Frelighsburg, Canada
- 1) The heraldic term for any gemstone found in a ring’ – stoned.
2) In some systems of European heraldry, the term used to describe when an object (such as an orb crown or mitre) is decorated with jewels – but see ‘garnished’.
Flag and Arms of Montgomery County, Maryland, US (fotw & Official Website);
Flag and Arms of Posedarje, Croatia (fotw)
- GENEVA CONVENTION FLAG
- See 'safe conduct flag 1)'.
Flag of the International Red Cross (fotw)
- GIN PENNANT (or PENDANT)
- In British RN and some other usage, an unofficial pennant of varying design – now
often a defaced version of the starboard pennant in the NATO signalling code – raised
when a ship’s officers wish to entertain the officers of another ship or ships
(see also ‘pennant 2)’ and
‘senior officer afloat pennant’).
One version of the gin pennant, UK (CS)
Please note that the above is usually made on board
from whatever materials lie to hand, however, the company Gordon’s Gin are known to
have supplied a number of commercially produced gin pennants to yachtsmen in the 1950’s.
Commercially Produced Gin Pennant c1955, UK (CS)
- GIRON (GERONNY, GYRONS or GIRONNÉ)
- Alternative heraldic terms for gyronny - see ‘gyronny’.
Flag of Warfstermolen, The Netherlands (fotw);
Flag of Albufeira, Portugal (fotw)
- GITON (GETON or GYTTON)
- Alternative medieval terms, now obsolete, used to describe a small (possibly swallow
tailed) flag (see also ‘pennant’ and
‘lance pennon 1)’).
Please note that there is no proven connection between
these terms and ‘guidon’, but that the similarity
cannot be ignored.
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