- SQUADRON COMMAND PENNANT
- See ‘command pennant’.
Squadron Command Pennant, Belgium (fotw)
- SQUARE CROSS
- See ‘cross 1)’.
Quebec, Canada (fotw)
- SQUARE LOZENGE (or DIAMOND)
- The term for a diamond shape or lozenge having four right angles – a
square diamond or rotated square - see ‘lozenge 2)’ (also ‘fusil’). ’.
House Flag of Linnhoff Schiffahrt, Germany (fotw);Arms and Flag of
Kutina, Croatia (fotw;
House Flag of AG Elms 1934, Germany (fotw)
a) Such a charge is sometimes seen in Middle European heraldry/symbolism
(and occasionally elsewhere)
b) This is not an established term and has been
introduced by the Editors as no established alternative could be found.
- See ‘square-tongued’ below.
- (adj) A term used to describe a flag, now increasingly (but not entirely) obsolete,
or a ceremonial flag/gonfalon, whose fly is cut into two or more square-ended tails
– square/rectangular-tailed or digitate (see also
‘ceremonial flag 1)’,
‘swallowtail and tongue’
Flag of Venice, Italy (fotw); Ceremonial Flag/Gonfalon of Baska, Croatia (fotw)
- 1) At sea, the short mast upon which the jack and ensign are hoisted – see
‘ensign staff’ and
- 2) The wooden shaft, often with a spear point finial, to which indoor flags;
military colours and parade flags are affixed – the pike (see also
‘parade flag’ and
- 3) See ‘flag pole’.
- STAFF OF ASCLEPIUS
- An unadorned staff with a single serpent wound around it, and symbolic of the
medical profession – a rod of asclepius or asklepian (see also ‘caduceus’).
Flag of The National Military Health Service, RSA (fotw plus enlarged
emblem Martin Grieve); Camp Flag of the Royal Army Medical Corps, UK (Graham Bartram)
Please note that this should not be confused with the caduceus as
referenced above, which has two serpents on a winged staff and is symbolic of medical
- STAFF OF HERMES (or MERCURY)
- See ‘caduceus’.
Flag of Holwerd, Netherlands (fotw)
- STAFF ORNAMENT
- See ‘finial’.
Staff Ornament/Finial, US Army (fotw)
- STAINLESS BANNER
- The official name for the second (although first formally adopted) national
flag of the Confederate States of America as introduced in 1863 and modified in
1865 (see also ‘banner 7)’,
‘battle flag 1)’,
‘southern cross 2)’ and
‘stars and bars’).
The Stainless Banner, CSA 1863 in national Flag and Naval Ensign Format and as
Modified 1865 (fotw)
Please note that stains is an abbreviation of the heraldic term stain and colours,
however, since this last has a connotation of disgrace we suggest that a suitable
glossary or dictionary of heraldry be consulted before use.
- See seeded and the following note.
Flag and Arms of Touro, Portugal (Sιrgio Horta): Flag of
Saga, Japan (fotw)
Please note that botany draws a distinction between the stamen and seedpods of a rose
or other flower, whereas English heraldry does not.
- STAND (OF COLOURS or COLORS)
- 1) A term used to describe all the colours carried by an infantry regiment -
formerly up to nine (or more) in English service - now generally (but not exclusively) limited to two per
regiment/battalion (see also
- 2) In US Civil War usage, a term sometimes employed (often in newspaper
reporting) to describe a flag or flags, particularly those captured in battle
(see also ‘trophy flag’).
A Stand of Six Colours, Colonel to the Third Captain,
a) The above illustrations are loosely
based on a surviving colour from the English Civil War - that of a sixth captain
in Sir John Gell'S Regiment of Foot (Parliamentarian) 1643-44 - and upon one system
of differencing such colours known to have been in use at that time (see
‘venn’ (also difference 1)).
b) some Continental armies (most notably
those of France and Austria) often had a larger establishment of men per battalion than was
customary in the English service, so the number of colours carried could be commensurately greater.
- 1) The flag of a head of state - see
‘presidential standard’ and
‘royal standard 1)’ - and its following note.
- 2) A rectangular flag used as a ceremonial unit flag by some cavalry and certain
other military units (see also ‘sovereign'S standard’).
See supplemental note:
- 3) A flag of heraldic design, long and tapering, possibly with a rounded or
double-rounded (lanceolate or double-tailed descate) fly carrying the owner'S
badge and motto (sometimes also a national symbol or personal arms), and bordered
in his livery colours. Originally used as an identifying symbol by medieval noblemen,
and still occasionally flown by those entitled to it – a heraldic standard (see
also ‘badge in heraldry, banner of arms,
lance pennon 1),
- 4) The headquarters flag of a Scottish nobleman or clan chief (and a standard
as defined in 3) above), it is between 3.5 and 7.5m long (dependent upon rank)
and tapers from 120cm to 80cm. The hoist carries either the national flag or owner'S
arms, whilst the tail is in the main livery colours and has the motto (usually
on diagonal bands) separated by the owner'S crest and other badges. The tail is
generally split into two rounded (double-tailed descate) ends (except for those
chiefs who do not hold a title of nobility, baronetcy or knighthood whose standards
have a simple rounded or lanceolate end), and the whole is edged or fringed with
alternating livery colours (see also
- 5) In obsolete usage, a pole with an emblem on the top around which soldiers
could rally (see also ‘eagle 2)’ and
- 6) As 5) above but fixed in place (rather than carried by a soldier), or alternatively
transported in a large vehicle of its own (see also
- 7) A figurative or poetic term for the symbol around which people rally.
a) With regard to 3) and 4), in English heraldry the entitlement
to a heraldic standard is consequent upon the granting or possession of a badge,
but is not dependent upon rank (see also
‘badge in heraldry’). In Scottish heraldry,
however, the entitlement to a standard (and to heraldic flags other than a banner
of arms) is consequent upon a separate grant by the Lord Lyon King of Arms (see
also ‘pinsel’ and
In UK usage the standard of the
Royal Horse Artillery comes within definition 3) – and is illustrated beneath
‘heraldic standard’– but is also a
ceremonial unit flag (as outlined in 2), above,) under certain circumstances.
- STANDARD BEARER
- 1) One who bears the regimental, unit, or national standard (see also
‘standard 1) - 5)’
2) See ‘colour bearer’.
- STANDARD CHEVRON
- See ‘chevron 1)’.
Flag of Zedelgem, Belgium (fotw)
- STANDARDUM (STANDARUM, STANTARUM or STANDALE)
- A medieval term, now obsolete, for a standard.
Please note that standardum and standale are, respectively,
the Latin and Italian words for standard, and that these and the derivations thereof
were used more or less indiscriminately by medieval scribes.
- A frequent misspelling of the heraldic term ‘statant’ – see ‘statant’
in ‘appendix V’
- 1) On flags, a charge – either solid colour or voided - in the form
of a geometric shape with radiating points. Stars with five points are the most
common, but any number is possible, for example: Aruba - four, Israel - six, Australia
- seven, Azerbaijan - eight and Malaysia – sixteen (see also
‘Magen David’, ‘pointed’,
radial orientation and
- 2) In heraldry see ‘mullet’ and
‘estoile (also ‘rowel’).
From left: National Flag of Aruba (fotw);
National Flag of Somalia (fotw); National Flag of Azerbaijan
(fotw); National Flag of Malaysia (fotw)
Please note that in vexillology the difference between
a multi-pointed star and a sun is usually only a matter of official symbolism,
however, a sun may sometimes be distinguished by having a ring around its central
disk (Taiwan), a face (Argentina) or wavy points (British Columbia) – see also
‘rays 1)’, ‘ring 1)’ and ‘sun emblem’.
- STAR-SPANGLED BANNER
- 1) Generally a poetic nickname for the US national flag – the Stars and Stripes (see also
‘Betsy Ross flag ’,
‘great star flags’,
‘stars and stripes’ below).
- 2) The US national flag with 15 stripes and 15 stars in use between 1795 and 1818.
- 3) Specifically the flag, as defined in 2) above, but which flew over Fort McHenry, Baltimore in 1814.
- 4) The national anthem of the US – but see note below.
National Flag of the US, 1795 – 1818 (fotw)
Please note that the US national anthem – from a poem by Francis Scott Key -
specifically refers to the flag as defined in 3) above, and which is preserved in the National Museum of American History,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
- STARBOARD OUTER
- See ‘yardarm’ and following note.
- STARBOARD PENNANT
- See ‘senior officer afloat pennant’.
Starboard/Senior Officer Afloat Pennant in the NATO Code of Signals (fotw)
- STAR GYRONNY
- See ‘faceted’.
Badge and Flag of the Governor General, Australia 1909 1936 (fotw)
- STAR OF DAVID
- See ‘Magen David’.
Arms and Flag of Penhascoso, Portugal (Sérgio Horta)
- STAR PLATE
- See ‘rank plate’.
Star/rank plate, Lt General Army and Marine Corps US
- STARS AND BARS
- A popular name for the first (although never formally adopted) national flag of the
Confederate States of America, and in use from 1861 – 1863 (see also
‘southern cross 2)’,
‘stainless banner’ and,
‘stars and stripes’ below).
Three Versions of the First National Flag, CSA 1861 - 1863 (fotw)
- STARS AND STRIPES
- A popular name for the US national flag (see also
‘Betsy Ross flag’,
‘great star flags’,
‘star-spangled banner’ and
‘stars and bars’ above).
National Flag of the US 1912 1960 (fotw);
National Flag of the US from 1960 (fotw)