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Granátula de Calatrava (Municipality, Castilla-La Mancha, Spain)

Last modified: 2019-09-14 by ivan sache
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Flag of Granátula de Calatrava - Image by Eduardo Panizo, Vexilla Hispanica, 17 May 2019

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Presentation of Granátula de Calatrava

The municipality of Granátula de Calatrava (819 inhabitants in 2016; 15,265 ha) is located 35 km south-east of Ciudad Real and 15 km south of Almagro.

Granátula de Granátula is located in a former volcanic area. The first volcano-museum in Spain was inaugurated on 15 April 2016 in the Cerro Gordo (lit., Fat Hill), a volcano located between Granátula de Calatrava and Valenzuela de Calatrava. The project (website) is managed jointly by the municipality of Granátula de Calatrava and the Asociación para el Desarrollo del Campo de Calatrava, on an area of 2,000 m2 offered by Lafargue Holcim, the company that exploits a quarry in the volcano.
Scientific support is supplied by the Grevlo (GeomorfologĂ­a, Territorio y Paisaje en Regiones Volcánicas) group at the University of Castilla-La Mancha, chaired by Elena González Cárdenas, and the Centro de Estudios Calatravos, led by Lorenzo Sánchez Messeguer.
[Mi Ciudad Real, 15 April 2016]

The archeological site of Oreto-Zuqueca is located near the chapel of Nuestra Señora de Oreto, 5 km south of the village of Granátula.
Excavations performed in 1975-1976 revealed that Cerro Domínguez has been the site of continuous human settlement from the 4th century BC to the 12th century. A commemorative stone kept in the Town Hall of Almagro says that Publius Baebius Venusto, from Oreto, offered 80,000 sesterces to build the bridge named for him; the stone is dated from the late 1st-early 2nd century. Local authors claim that Oreto had a temple, allegedly dedicated to Proserpina, a theater, and a circus, of unknown exact location. The chapel of Oreto-Zuqueca was built on the foundations of a paleochristian baptistery. A stone found on Cerro de Oreto, dated 387, mentions a grain barn; the stone is decorated with a chrismon and letters "A" and "Ω", indicating that the place was already a sanctuary.
Some sources report that Oreto-Zuqueco was the capital of the Visigoth province of Oretania and the see of a bishopric, as were Castulo and Mentesa. Eight bishops of Oreto are known as attendees to councils organized in Toledo from 589 to 693. The tombstone of Bishop Amador was found on the neighbouring Cerro de los Obispos (Bishops' Hill); according to the writing, Amador served as a bishop for one year and ten months and died on 9 February 652 (614 according to modern calendar), during the second year of reign of King Sisebut. Excavations started in 1996 yielded a necropolis and remains of buildings, confirming the presence of a significant Visigoth settlement.

Granátula de Calatrava is the birth place of General Baldomero Espartero (1793-1879), "the man who would not be king".
Espartero significantly secured the triumph of the party of Queen Isabel II (1830-1904) and her mother, Regent Maria Christina (1806-1898) during the First Carlist War (1833-1839). After a decisive battle won in 1836 in Luchana, several other wins prompted the Carlist General Rafael Maroto (1783-1853) to sign on 29 August 1839 the Oñata Agreement, which ended the war. The next year, Espartero suppressed in Morella a last Carlist attempt. As a reward, Espartero was made Count of Luchana, Duke of the Victory, Grandee of Spain, Viscount of Banderas, and Knight of the Golden Fleece.
Appointed President of the Council by the Queen Regent, Espartero opposed to her conservatism. He organized uprisings in Barcelona and Madrid, which forced the Queen Regent to abdicate on 1 March 1840. Appointed Regent by the Cortes on 8 March 1840, Espartero established a personal rule, governing in the name of Isabel II. In 1843, the violent repression of the Barcelona uprising and pressure put on the Cortes definitively tarnished Espatero's reputation. The insurrection spread to several regions of Spain. On 23 July 1843, General Narváez (1800-1868) entered Madrid and released the young queen. Espartero escaped and exiled to the United Kingdom.
In 1847, Queen Isabel II pardoned Espartero and appointed him Senator and Ambassador in London. Back to Logroño in 1849, he retired from public life for a while. In 1868, the September Revolution ended with the abdication of Isabel II; Espartero was proposed the throne by General Prim (1814-1870), which he wisely refused, arguing that after such an adventurous life, he was too old to serve more than the Mayor of Logroño.

General Espartero is honored in his birth village by an equestrian statue designed in 1991 by the sculptor José Lillo Galiani (b. 1948). The statue was modeled on the two old statutes, nearly identical, designed in Madrid (1886) and Logroño (1895) by Pablo Gibert y Roig. The alleged oversized testicles of the horse were a matter of dispute between the Mayor and the sculptor, who refused to decrease their size, for the sake of respect for the old statues.
[ABC, 6 January 2014]

Ivan Sache, 17 May 2019

Symbols of Granátula de Calatrava

The flag of Granátula de Calatrava is prescribed by an Order issued on 28 November 2006 by the Government of Castilla-La Mancha and published on 11 December 2006 in the official gazette of Castilla-La Mancha, No. 256, p. 27,281 (text).
The flag is described as follows:

Flag: Rectangular in proportions 2:3, horizontally divided in three stripes, the central stripe twice wider than the other ones, the outer stripes, red, and the central stripe, white, charged in the center with the municipal coat of arms in full colors.

The Royal Academy of History validated the proposed flag "without inconvenience". On the arms, the pomegranate should be argent, as approved in 1960, following the drawing published in the Bulletin of the Royal Academy of History (1964. 95, 97), of better aesthetic.
[Boletín de la Real Academia de la Historia 203:2, 193-194. 2006]

The coat of arms of Granátula de Calatrava is prescribed by Decree No. 1,708, issued on 7 September 1960 by the Spanish Government and published on 15 September 1960 in the Spanish official gazette, No. 222, p. 13,002 (text). The coat of arms is not described in the Decree

Ivan Sache, 17 May 2019