Last modified: 2016-10-22 by ivan sache
Keywords: bergama |
Links: FOTW homepage | search | disclaimer and copyright | write us | mirrors
Flag of Bergama - Image by Jens Pattke, 15 December 2012
The municipality of Bergama (101,004 inhabitants in 2012, 61,406 in the town proper; 17,224 ha) is the northernmost district in İzmir Province.
Ivan Sache, 21 February 2016
The flag of Bergama (photo) is red with a white statue. "Belediyesi" means "Municipality".
The emblem of the municipality features a statue recalling to the ancient town of Pergamon.
After the death of Alexander in 323 BC, Pergamon was a city-state incorporated to the territory controlled by Lysimachus. In 282 BC, Lysimachus was killed in a battle fought against Seleucus; his lieutenant, Philatauerus, proclaimed himself his successor in the fortress of Pergamon and pled allegiance to Seleucus. Attalus I (241-197 BC), the founder of the Attalid dynasty, was the first ruler of Pergamon who used the title of king. Attalus ruled the most powerful kingdom in Anatolia and defeated the Galatians. His successor, Eumenes II, reigned until 159 BC; he took the Roman party and was appointed ruler of the former Seleucid kingdom.
Pergamon must have counted some 10,000 inhabitants at the time. Fond of culture, Eumenes II established a library that challenged the monopoly exerted by Alexandria; upset, King Ptolemy IV banned the export of papyrus to Pergamon, where a new writing support was developed, soon known as parchment (Spanish, pergamino; Italian, pergamena).
Attalus III (138-133 BC) could not preserve the independence of Pergamon, which was made the capital of the Roman province of Asia, soon transferred to Ephesus after civil unrest had broken in the town. Pergamon thrived under Hadrian (117-138) but declined in the next century, being damaged by an earthquake and sacked by the Goths in 262.
[Ancient History Encyclopedia]
The ruins of Pergamon were excavated by the German archeologist Carl Humann (1839-1896) from 1876 to 1866. In agreement with the Ottoman Government, his findings were transported to Berlin, where they are exhibited in the Pergamon Museum. The most striking element of the museum is the reconstruction of the Great Altar of Zeus and Athena, built by Eumenes II, from 166 to 156 BC. The statue represented on the municipal emblem must be part of the monument.
[ Encyclopedia of Art and Classical Antiquity]
Tomislav Šipek & Ivan Sache, 21 February 2016