Last modified: 2017-11-11 by andrew weeks
Keywords: kolo |
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The town of Koło (mentioned as Colo) received local government in 1362
from King Casimir III. It was situated in a safe place near the royal castle,
on the island in the branches of the Warta River; the town had no walls
but only two gates. It was a royal city and the seat of a land county
In 1410 Koło was a gathering place of the Greater Poland nobility, which called for a war with the Teutonic Order (see Battle of Grunwald). In 1452 the Royal Castle in Koło was the place of meeting between King Casimir the Jagiellonian and the representatives of the Prussian Union (see: the Thirteen Yearś War).
From the early 15th century until 1716, Koło was the meeting place of
the Provincial Parliament (Sejmik Generalny) for Greater Poland,
comprising the Poznań Voivodship, Kalisz Voivodship, Sieradz Voivodeship,
Łęczyca Voivodeship, Brześć Kujawski Voivodeship and Inowrocław Voivodeship)
The town evolved as a regional centre of trade and crafts, especially in metals and textiles, and in the 16th century a suburb of Zduny consisting mainly of potters developed on the right bank of the Warta river, receiving separate municipal autonomy in 1559. Koło was destroyed twice, once in 1622 by the Lisowski forces, and in 1655 by the Swedes; the economy managed to revive only at the end of the 17th century.
Until 1793 Koło belonged to Konin County of Kalisz Voivodeship, and in the years 1793-1806 it was occupied by Prussia, but during the Kościuszko insurrection in 1794 it was temporarily liberated by the insurgents. In the years 1807-1815 it belonged to the Duchy of Warsaw and later to Congress Poland.
In the early 20th century, the Jewish population of Kolo made up almost 50 percent of the total population. When the Nazis occupied Poland, all males over the age of 14 were sent to forced labor. In December 1940, the Jews were rounded up in a ghetto, which was liquidated the following year, in December 1941. The remaining Jews were deported to Chelmno, where they were shot or gassed to death and buried in mass graves. Kolo remained a transfer point for Jews deported to Łódź, and Nazi officials, including Heinrich Himmler, visited the town. (wiki)
Arms and flag adopted on June 27, 2003 (resolution # X/75/2003).
"Arms: on the red shield two fortified tower with black roofs and windows standing on top of the wheel with eight spokes - all in gold.
Flag: of light-blue color with the Arms in the middle.
The city has also a pretty complicated standard adopted shortly after
the Arms and flag.
The obverse shows the city's Coat of Arms and reverse an image of Blessed Bogumil, Archbishop of Gniezno (1075), patron of the Land of Kolo, with the legend which says: "Blessed Bogumil - pray for us"
BTW: Another example of vague and sloppy description given in the legal
The proof sheet of the law shows a vertical rectangle in the ratio 8:5, while wiki and Lajsikonik have it square and in the darker shade of blue.
Chrystian Kretowicz, 18 Nov 2008