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United Kingdom of Saxony and Poland (Germany)

Königreich von Sachsen und Polen in Personalunion

Last modified: 2017-11-11 by klaus-michael schneider
Keywords: eagle(silver) | inescutcheon | crancelin | swords(crossed) |
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[Saxony-Poland flag] image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 22 Dec 2013 See also:

Brief History

Elector Friedrich August I of Saxony from the Albertine branch of the Wettin kin, better known as August the Strong (1670 - 1733), was elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania by the Polish nobility in 1697. His name then was August II. After his death Stanislaw Leszczynski was made the Polish king from 1733 until 1735. From 1736 until 1763 the son of August the Strong, Elector Friedrich August II gained the title as August III of Poland (and Lithuania). Due to strong Russian influence in 1764 Stanislaw August Poniatowski became King of Poland. Under his rule Poland-Lithuania was divided into partitions and finally dissolved in 1795. Saxonian Elector Friedrich August III was upgraded by French Emperor Napoleon I to a King of Saxony in 1806. Stanislaw August Poniatowski enforced the Polish nobility by a new constitution to transform the Polish Lithuaninan Commonwelth into a hereditary monarchy under the Wettin kin after his death. But the Saxonian Elector refused being afraid of troubles with Russia, Austria and Prussia. In 1807 Napoleon I established the Grand Duchy of Warsaw and made the Saxonian King, one of his allies, Grand Duke of Warsaw. After Napoleons defeat in Russia in 1812 the Grand Duchy was occupied by Russian and Prussian troops and divided between them on the Congress of Vienna.
The engagement of the Wettin kin in Poland was a financial disaster, because most of their subsidies were not spent to the welfare of the country. Most of all was needed for ridiculous bribes for the local nobility and clergimen. Especially the former had no interest to establish a strong kingdom, which might cut their privileges.
Source: Volker Preuß: "Die Flagge von Sachsen-Polen", publ. in "Der Flaggenkurier", no. 38; Berlin November 2013; pp.12,13
Klaus-Michael Schneider, 22 Dec 2013

Flag

Description of flag:
Volker Preuß found a flag of Saxony-Poland in the Wawel of Krakow on Easter 2013. It is a red over white horizontal bicolour. In the centre of the flag is a silver (= white) eagle, crowned and armed golden (= yellow) and tongued silver (= white), holding a silver (= white) sword with a golden (= yellow) hilt in his right claw and a golden (= yellow) sceptre in the other claw. Upon his breast is an inescutcheon divided per pale. The dexter half is divided per fess into black over silver (= white), superimposed by two silver swords crossed per saltire. The sinister half is divided seven times per fess into silver (= white) and black (i.e. eight alternating white and black stripes) superimposed by a golden (= yellow) crancelin. Colour and eagle are representing Poland. The sinister half of the inescutcheon is a modification of the Ballenstedt arms of Saxony, which usually has black and yellow stripes and a green crancelin. The dexter side is alluding to the Duke of Saxony as bearer of the function of an arch marshal among the seven electors. The function was however administrated by the Pappenheim kin. The swords usually are red. (The design is also found on several flags of the Catholic party in the 30-Years-War)
Source: Volker Preuß: "Die Flagge von Sachsen-Polen", publ. in "Der Flaggenkurier", no. 38; Berlin November 2013; pp.12,13
Klaus-Michael Schneider, 22 Dec 2013