Last modified: 2014-01-03 by zoltán horváth
Keywords: islam | china | uighuristan | east turkestan | xinjiang | crescent | star | shahada | kashgaria |
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In 1933 (when the Chinese central government had de facto ceased to exist)
there was a short-lived state country in present day Xinjiang with names "Republic
of Uighuristan" or "Islamic Republic of East Turkestan" (both names were used
although the state existed for less than one year). This state has used a star
and crescent flag of triangular shape.
Harald Mueller, 28 August 1997
by Mark Sensen
This flag uses the shahada out of the Saudi flag. An alternative rendering
is shown below.Uighuristan existed for less than a year between 1932 and 1933. It issued coins
with national symbols on them: a triangular flag with a crescent and star, if
I recall the crescent faces the hoist. On some of the coins the flag has a flamed
border. Of course, no colors are provided.
Harald Mueller 1996-JUL-1
by Mark Sensen
by eljko Heimer and António Martins-Tuválkin, 9 December 2007
The flag of the 'Republic of Uighuristan' was also said to be like the Turkish
flag, with a blue background instead of red. Now, I have checked out flag depictions
on coins from this "state", and they look different. The flag is triangular (like
a diagonal cut of a normal oblong flag), and the crescent looks towards the hoist.
Sometimes there are a kind of flames attached to the border.
I have seen two flags attributed to the Uighurs or East Turkestan, but I don't
know the official status of either. One is the same as the Turkish flag but dark
blue instead of red. The other is white with a dark blue crescent and star in
the upper half, centred horizontally. Both crescent and star point toward the
upper hoist. In the lower half is the Islamic Shahadah in Arabic script (the same
as on the Saudi Arabian flag).
David Lewellen 21 January 1996
From the Eastern Turkestan Information Center web site (http://www.uygur.com/english.htm), it is clear that this flag is used by Uygur nationalists.
Some historical facts from "Courrier International", 440, 08 April 1999: "In
1884, Turkestan was incorporated to Mandchu Empire as Xinjiang ("New border").
Between 1884 and 1949, 42 armed revolts occurred against the military governors.
Independentists mention a short-lived Islamic Republic of Eastern Turkestan established
in the south in 1933, and a second Republic of Eastern Turkestan in 1944. Seized
in 1949 by the Chinese troops, the Uygur autonomous region was created in 1955.
Independentists claim they never stopped demonstrations and clandestine actions
Ivan Sache, 8 April 1999
The chart: Flags of Aspirant Peoples [eba94]
shows: 137. "East Turkestan (Uighurs) - West-china, Xinjiang." Similar to the
last flag above, but with very dark blue field. The flag with light blue field
is the one used in Uighur demonstrations.
Ivan Sache, 16 September 1999
Franciae Vexilla [frv] (#17/63 - March 2000) reports additional flags.
Cheng-Chi-Tsai, first flag
During the civil war, the war lord Cheng-Chi-Tsai proclaimed an autonomous province in Xin-Jiang (1933-1942). He was first influenced by Japan and used a yellow flag with a red six-pointed star in the canton
Cheng-Chi-Tsai, second flag
He later changed his flag under Soviet influence for a red field with a yellow
six-pointed star in the middle.
The Islamic Republic of Eastern Turkestan was proclaimed on 12 December 1933 in Aksou (South Xin-Jiang) ans suppressed in February 1934 with Soviet help. The flag sown in Franciae Vexilla differes from those above by having the crescent facing the hoist and the shahadah written in Uighur.
Flag - Second Republic East Turkestan
The Second Republic of Eastern Turkestan (People's Republic of Eastern Turkestan) was proclaimed on 11 November 1943 in Koudja by grouping the provinces of Altai, Ili and Tarbagtai (Northern Xin-Jiang). The Republic, which was proclaimed with Soviet helped, joined the PRC in 1949. The flag was light blue with a light blue crescent and star fimbriated in white, pointing to the upper hoist.
Yellow Bordered Uighur flag
Franciae Vexilla also shows the Uighur flag used in demonstrations.
The flag was also seen with a yellow border.
Ivan Sache, 01 April 2000
Flag of Kashgaria 1865-73 (Seven City Emirate)
image by Chrystian Kretowicz, 24 July 2009
Flag of Kashgaria 1873-77 (Great Fortune Khanate)
image by Chrystian Kretowicz, 24 July 2009
Yet another "obscure" Muslim state in XIX century Sinkiang (Xinjiang). Its
flags are relatively well known (researched by Michel Lupant and Jaume Ollé,
The Muslims of Sinkiang (Xinjiang) Province in western China revolted under the leadership of Yakub (Yaqoob) Beg in 1965. They rapidly gained control of much of Sinkiang's territory and declared the Seven City Islam Emirate, a vassal of Qoqand (Kokand). By 1873, Yakub Beg controlled nearly all of Sinkiang (Xinjiang), declared independence as the "Great Fortune Khanate", received a level of recognition from Russia and Great Britain and was technically under the protection of Ottoman (Osmanli) Sultan. The Chinese began pressuring Kashgaria, and finally regained control of Sinkiang (Xinjiang) after Yakub Beg's death in 1877 (the exact date of his death is unclear).
More detailed history is available at: http://knowledgerush.com/kr/encyclopedia/Kashgaria/, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashgar, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yakub_Beg and there is a note by Jaume Ollé concerning Kashgaria.
There is an image of the first flag of Kashgaria on Roberto Breschi's excellent website, although the dates don't correspond there to the historic facts. There is also a white flag there attributed to Kashgaria.
Both flags, of the Emirate and Khanate are shown on the Chinese websites: http://blog.pcpop.com/picture/0002482013-1.html, http://blog.pcpop.com/picture/0002482035-1.html and http://wiudwing.blogspot.com/2008/06/flag-in-china.html.
Chrystian Kretowicz, 24 July 2009
by Ivan Sache
Znamierowski (Flags through the ages: A guide to the world of flags, banners,
standards and ensigns) [zna00] shows for
the same state in the same period the same flag, but red instead of
Ivan Sache, 15 March 2001
This must be a mistake or print error. Red flags with half moon and star
were used by the Khodjas (middle of XIX century), and by some sultanates (Kansu,
Tsinghai and Ninghsia, Sultanate of three Horses,
1911-1950) but half moon and star was in Turkey pattern.
All sources are according that the East Turkestan republic flag (existed 1944-1949
and not 1943-1949, but perhaps flags were used before this) was blue and current
nationalist (mainly Uighur) adopted this color c. 1990.
Jaume Ollé, 15 March 2001
image by Jaume Ollé, 14 December 2009
The national flag of East Turkestan Republic used at the Republic
Establishment Congress on Nov 12 1944.
The green flag charged with yellow five pointed star and crescent in the center. Not light blue and white flag!
Nozomi Kariyasu, 14 December 2009